Template:Chinese name Template:Chinese Han Xin (died 196 BC) was a military general who served Liu Bang (Emperor Gaozu of Han) during the Chu–Han contention period and contributed greatly to the founding of the Han Dynasty. Han was named as one of the "Three Heroes of the early Han Dynasty" (漢初三傑), along with Zhang Liang and Xiao He.
Han is best remembered as a brilliant military leader for the strategies and tactics he employed in warfare, some of which became the origins of certain Chinese idioms. In recognition of Han's contributions, Liu conferred the titles of "King of Qi" on him in 203 BC and "King of Chu" in the following year. However, Liu was afraid of Han's abilities and gradually reduced Han's military power, demoting him to "Marquis of Huaiyin" in late 202 BC. In 196 BC, Han was accused of participating in a rebellion and lured into a trap and executed on Empress Lü Zhi's orders.
Han lived a childhood in destitution as his father died early. He was despised by those around him as he often relied on others for his meals. He had a keen interest in military strategy and spent his time studying military treatises and practicing sword techniques.
Once, when he was suffering from hunger, he met a woman who provided him with food. He promised to repay her for her kindness after he had made great achievements in life, but was scorned by her. On another occasion, a hooligan saw Han carrying a sword and challenged him to either kill him or crawl through between his legs. Han knew that he was at a disadvantage because his opponent was much stronger and bigger than him, hence instead of responding to the taunts, he meekly crawled through between the hooligan's legs and was laughed at.
Several years later, after becoming the King of Chu, Han returned to his hometown and found the woman who fed him and rewarded her with 1,000 taels of gold. Han also found the hooligan and instead of taking revenge, he appointed the hooligan as a zhongwei (中尉; equivalent of a present-day lieutenant). He said, "This man is a hero. Do you think I could not have killed him when he humiliated me? I would not become famous even if I killed him then. Hence, I endured the humiliation to preserve my life for making great achievements in future."
Serving Xiang YuEdit
In 209 BC, Han joined Xiang Liang's rebel army when rebellions erupted throughout China to overthrow the Qin Dynasty. Han continued serving Xiang Yu (Xiang Liang's nephew) after Xiang Liang was killed in action at the Battle of Dingtao. He was not placed in high regard and worked as a sentry and prepared meals. He constantly proposed strategies to Xiang but was ignored. In 206 BC, Han deserted Xiang Yu's army and went to join Liu Bang.
Joining Liu BangEdit
Initially after joining Liu Bang's army, Han was not given any important roles. Once, he violated military law and was due to be punished by execution. When it was his turn to be beheaded, Han saw Xiahou Ying (one of Liu Bang's trusted generals) and said, "I thought the king wanted to rule an empire. Why is he killing valiant men then?" Xiahou was surprised and spared Han's life and recommended him to Liu Bang. Liu was not impressed with Han and put him in charge of the food supplies. During that time, Han met Xiao He (one of Liu's chief advisors), who recognized his talent.
In 206 BC, Liu Bang was granted the title of "King of Han" by Xiang Yu after the latter divided the former Qin empire into the Eighteen Kingdoms, and was relocated to the remote Bashu region (in present-day Sichuan). Some of Liu's men became discontented after spending months in Bashu and deserted. Meanwhile, Han was expecting Xiao He to recommend him to Liu, but he had not received news for a long time so he became disappointed and left as well. When Xiao heard that Han had left, he immediately rushed to find Han and bring him back, and did not manage to inform Liu Bang in time. Xiao eventually caught up with Han and managed to persuade Han to go back with him. This event gave rise to the saying, "Xiao He chases Han Xin under the moonlight" (蕭何月下追韓信). In the meantime, Liu Bang had a nervous breakdown after hearing the rumor that Xiao had also deserted him. While he was relieved when he saw Xiao returning with Han, he angrily asked Xiao, "Of all those who deserted, why did you only choose to go after Han Xin?" Xiao then strongly recommended Han to Liu, saying that Han's talent was unmatched. Liu accepted Xiao's suggestion and held a special ceremony to appoint Han as a general and commander-in-chief of his army.
Conquering the Three QinsEdit
After his appointment, Han analyzed the situation for Liu Bang and devised a plan for Liu to conquer Xiang Yu's Western Chu kingdom. In late 206 BC, Liu's forces left Hanzhong and prepared to attack the Three Qins in Guanzhong. Han ordered some soldiers to pretend to repair the gallery roads linking Guanzhong and Hanzhong, while sending another army to secretly pass through Chencang and make a surprise attack on Zhang Han. Zhang was caught off guard and the Han forces emerged victorious, proceeding to take over Sima Xin and Dong Yi's kingdoms. The strategy employed by Han, known as Mingxiu Zhandao, Andu Chencang (明修棧道, 暗度陳倉; literally: "Appearing to repair the gallery roads while making secret advances through Chencang"), became one of the Thirty-Six Stratagems.
Battle of JingsuoEdit
After the conquest of the Three Qins, Liu allowed Han to lead an army to attack Zhang Han's remnant forces in Feiqiu, while he personally led an army to attack Chu's capital city of Pengcheng (present-day Xuzhou), capturing it in 205 BC. Xiang Yu turned back from his campaign in the Qi kingdom to retake Pengcheng and defeated Liu by surprise in the Battle of Pengcheng. Liu retreated to Xingyang after his defeat. Xiao He was placed in charge of Guanzhong and he sent Han to lead reinforcements to help Liu. Han defeated the Chu forces in the Battle of Jingsuo and drove them east of Xingyang.
Template:Main In late 205 BC, Liu Bang put Han in command of an army and sent him to conquer the rival kingdoms in northern China. Han's first target was Western Wei, ruled by Wei Bao, who defected to Xiang Yu's side after initially surrendering to Liu Bang. Han tricked the Wei forces into cornering themselves at the border and made a surprise attack on Anyi (present-day Xia County, Shanxi) with another task force, scoring victory and capturing Wei Bao in battle. Shortly later, Han proceeded to conquer the Dai kingdom and captured Dai's chancellor, Xia Shuo.
Han's army advanced further to attack the Zhao kingdom. Han scored another tactical victory against the 200,000 strong Zhao army with a smaller force in the Battle of Jingxing. After his victory, Han sent a messenger to Zang Tu (King of Yan) asking for his surrender, and Zang agreed to submit to Liu Bang.
In late 204 BC, Liu ordered Han to lead an army to attack the Qi kingdom. However, Liu later sent Li Yiji to persuade Tian Guang (King of Qi) to surrender, without informing Han. Kuai Tong advised Han to proceed with the invasion because if Li Yiji succeeded in persuading Qi to surrender, his contributions would outshine Han's. Hence, Han ordered an assault on Lixia and went on to capture Qi's capital city of Linzi. Tian Guang already had the intention of surrendering but the attacks angered him and he felt betrayed by Li Yiji and had Li executed. In the meantime, Xiang Yu sent Long Ju to lead an army to reinforce Tian Guang. Han achieved another decisive victory against the combined forces of Qi and Chu at the Battle of Wei River. Han later sent a messenger to Liu Bang, requesting that Liu appoint him as acting King of Qi. At that time, Liu was trapped in Xingyang by Xiang Yu and Han's request angered him, because he was expecting Han to come to his aid. However, Zhang Liang and Chen Ping cautioned Liu against rejecting the request, because Han may be discontented and would rebel against Liu, putting them in a dangerous situation. Liu reluctantly agreed to Han's request.
Meanwhile, Xiang Yu sent Wu She to persuade Han to declare independence from Liu Bang and form an alliance with him, in hope of losing an opponent on the northern front. Kuai Tong also strongly urged Han to rebel against Liu, warning him that Liu was starting to distrust him because he wielded too much military power. However, Han refused to renounce his loyalty to Liu Bang.
Battle of GaixiaEdit
Template:Main In 203 BC, Liu Bang came to an armistice with Xiang Yu, known as the Treaty of Hong Canal, which divided China into west and east under their respective domains. Shortly after, Liu renounced the treaty and led an attack on Xiang's forces, which were retreating east. Liu sent messengers to request assistance from Han and Peng Yue in forming a three-pronged attack on Western Chu, but Han and Peng did not mobilize their troops, and Liu was defeated by Xiang in the Battle of Guling.
Liu retreated back to his territory and strengthened his defenses, while sending messengers to Han and Peng again, promising to grant them fiefs and nobility titles if they helped him defeat Xiang Yu. Han and Peng brought their armies to meet Liu in late 203 BC, and Han suggested using a strategy of "ambush on ten sides" (十面埋伏) to weaken Xiang's forces before making a final assault. The plan succeeded and by 202 BC, Xiang was trapped in Gaixia and surrounded by Han forces on all sides. He attempted to break out of the encirclement and eventually arrived at the Wu River bank, where he made a last stand before committing suicide.
After Xiang Yu's death, China was unified under Liu Bang's rule, and Liu granted Han the title of "King of Chu" in recognition of his contributions. Months later, Liu declared himself Emperor of China and became known as Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty.
In 202 BC, Zhongli Mo (one of Xiang Yu's generals), who was wanted by the Han Dynasty government, came to Han Xin and requested for refuge. On account of their past friendship, Han protected Zhongli and let him stay in his Chu kingdom. When Emperor Gaozu heard that Zhongli was hiding in Han's fief, he ordered Han to arrest Zhongli, but Han refused.
A year later, Gaozu heard rumours that Han was plotting a rebellion. Chen Ping proposed to Gaozu to lure Han into a trap and capture him, on the pretext of ordering him to attend a meeting in Chen (present-day Huaiyang, Henan). Meanwhile, Zhongli committed suicide to prevent Han from getting into trouble. Han brought Zhongli's severed head to meet Gaozu later and explain his innocence, but Gaozu ordered Han to be arrested. Han exclaimed, "It is true when people say: The hunting dog becomes food as well after it is used to hunt game; a good bow is discarded when there are no birds left for shooting; an advisor dies after he helps his lord conquer a rival kingdom. Now that the empire is in place, I no longer serve any purpose!" Although Gaozu pardoned Han and released him later, he still demoted Han from "King of Chu" to "Marquis of Huaiyin".
After his demotion, Han knew that Emperor Gaozu was beginning to distrust him and become more wary of him, because Han had proven himself to be such a brilliant military leader that he even had the ability to seize Gaozu's empire for himself. Hence, Han claimed to be ill and stayed at home most of the time to reduce Gaozu's suspicions. Around 197 BC, Chen Xi (Marquis of Yangxia) met Han before leaving for Julu, requesting for Han's support in an uprising against the Han Dynasty. Not long later, Chen rebelled and Gaozu personally led an army to suppress the rebellion.
While Gaozu was away, Empress Lü Zhi heard rumours of Han's involvement in the rebellion, and she plotted with Xiao He to lure Han into a trap. Han was arrested and executed in a torturous manner in Changle Palace, along with his mother, wife and close relatives. Han's clan was exterminated on the empress's orders as well. Upon his return from his campaign, Gaozu expressed both glee and regret when he learnt of Han's death. He asked the empress for Han's last words, which were, "I regret not listening to Kuai Tong's advice."
In legend, Gaozu once promised Han that if he "faced Heaven and stood firm on Earth" (頂天立地; i.e. remained loyal) to the Han Dynasty, he would not have Han killed by any weapon used by soldiers. Hence, when Han was executed, he was hung inside a great bell and pierced to death with swords made from wood or bamboo. As such, when he died, Han was neither "facing Heaven" (because his body was covered by the bell) nor "standing firm on Earth" (because he was suspended inside the bell), and was not killed by any weapon used by soldiers (soldiers do not use wooden or bamboo swords).
Despite his role in Han's death, Xiao He tried to prevent Han's family from being completely killed. He asked Kuai Tong to help Han's two sons escape to Nanyue and change their family name to Zhuo (卓) and Wei (韋) to conceal their identities. One of Han's relatives hid in wheat during the massacre and changed his family name to Mai (麥), which means "wheat".
Some Chinese idioms and sayings originated from the events in Han's life and are listed as follows:
- Shame of crawling through between someone's legs (胯下之辱): used to describe a humiliating incident. This idiom originated from the incident when Han was bullied by a hooligan. (see above for more information)
- When Han Xin selects his troops, the more the better (韓信點兵, 多多益善): originated from a conversation between Han and Liu Bang. Liu asked Han, "How many men do you think I can command?", to which Han replied, "A maximum of 100,000." Liu asked, "What about you?", and Han replied, "The more the better." Liu said, "So that means I cannot defeat you?" Han explained, "No, my lord, you command generals while I command soldiers."
- Both success and failure are due to Xiao He, life and death are due to two women (成敗一蕭何, 生死兩婦人): Xiao helped Han become a general, which enabled Han to put his talent to good use. However, Han's downfall was also due to Xiao. In his early days, Han was given "life" by the old woman, who provided him with food. Han's death was due to Empress Lü Zhi.
Sima Qian commented on Han as follows:
I have been to Huaiyin (present-day Huai'an, Jiangsu), and the locals told me that when Han was still a commoner, his ambition was very different from ordinary people's. When his mother died, he was too poor to give her a proper funeral. However, he found a scenic area, on high and flat ground and capable of housing thousands, and buried her there. I have personally been to his mother's grave and it was exactly like what the locals described to me. If Han was more modest and unassuming, did not boast about his achievements, and not been so egoistic, he would have attained fame, glory and wealth. In that case, his contributions to the Han Dynasty would be comparable to those of the Duke of Zhou, Duke of Shao, and Jiang Ziya, and his descendants would be proud of him. However, Han did not change himself for the better. Instead, when peace and stability had been restored in the empire (China), he plotted a rebellion and caused his clan to be implicated and exterminated. Is this not Heaven's will?
Sima Guang commented on Han as follows:
Many people would think that Han was the first person to propose the grand plan for unifying China: he started his plan together with (Emperor) Gaozu in Hanzhong, conquered the Three Qins, led a northern campaign to attack the kingdoms of Wei, Dai, Zhao, Yan and Qi, moved south to destroy Chu in Gaixia. As such, he is seen to have contributed greatly to the founding of the Han Dynasty. When we look at how he rejected Kuai Tong's suggestion to declare independence, and how he received Gaozu at Chen (present-day Huaiyang, Henan), how can we say he had the intention of rebelling? The reason for his rebellion was that he felt unhappy about losing his nobility title. Lu Wan was merely Gaozu's neighbour, yet he was appointed King of Yan, while Han only received the title of a marquis and could only have audiences with Gaozu. Is this not an example of how Gaozu treated Han unfairly? I think that Gaozu did treat Han unfairly when he lured Han into a trap and captured him, but Han was also at fault, which led to his downfall. When Gaozu was at war with Xiang Yu in Xingyang, Han had just conquered the Qi kingdom and did not turn back to support Gaozu, and instead requested to be appointed as acting King of Qi. Besides, during the Battle of Guling, Han did not keep his promise to help Gaozu, and caused Gaozu to lose the battle. Since then, Gaozu had the intention of killing Han but did not do so as he was not powerful enough yet. When Gaozu's empire came into place, Han no longer served any purpose.
Han is one of the 32 historical figures who appear as special characters in the video game Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI by Koei. He is also a playable character of the "Paladin" class in the game Prince of Qin.
Notes and referencesEdit
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